18 Educational Philosophy, Concepts, Methods, and Skills in Teaching and indirect responses to it and to the student’s interventions. The analysis requires the application of pertinent theory, research, and practice concepts and principles, as well as consideration of values and ethical issues. Like the Record of Service, the Critical Incident is most helpful when it is based upon students’ cases. An assignment, instructions, and excerpts from an actual criti- cal incident can be found in appendix C and the textbook. Written Assignments We firmly believe that students’ critical thinking skills and their understanding of social work practice are most likely to be enhanced through writing papers that require them to integrate and apply their learning to their doing. Neither of the coauthors uses exams, although the suggested assignments in part II of this guide could easily be converted to essay-style exams. Graphic Representations Graphic representations help students learn concepts and principles, and at the same time teach them how to use these tools as assessment and intervention with their clients. Ecomap. This is a useful device for helping students to grasp the complexity of clients’ environments and the transactions involved. We discuss the develop- ment and use of the ecomap in chapter 5. In class, the instructor and students can create an ecomap that reflects an actual client’s social network. Students are invited to suggest which environmental elements involving the client should be pictured as circles outside the central circle, representing the client. Some of these may need to be delineated further in order to show their complexities. For example, the instructor can help students identify the various subsystems in a healthcare circle (e.g., doctor, nurse, dietitian, occupational therapist, phys- ical therapist, outpatient departments), or in the school system (e.g., teacher, guidance counselor, principal, bus driver, school board). The genogram. This intervention tool helps students to see how family aspi- rations, myths, secrets, expectations, and perceptions are transmitted from one generation to another. In practice, as we discuss in chapter 5, the genogram helps clients and their workers see how current family dynamics reflect genera- tional patterns. Like the ecomap, when the instructor helps students construct a genogram together in class, they are learning how to create one in their practice and developing a deeper understanding of the family concepts that are depicted. We have found that students in the foundation and generalist field practi- cum may have only limited experience with families and the knowledge needed
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