Influencing Community and Neighborhood Life 151 • Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person- in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies. • Develop mutually agreed-on intervention goals and objectives based on the critical assessment of strengths, needs, and challenges within clients and constituencies. 4. Approaches to Community Practice Community practice exists on a continuum from radical approaches designed to empower marginalized communities to collaborative approaches intended to improve members’ relationships with one another and encourage them to help one another. Three intervention methods have been identified. Social workers often employ one or more of these strategies simultaneously. When social workers engage in locality development, they help communities improve the quality of life for members. The focus of the worker’s efforts are community members themselves. In contrast, when social workers assist com- munities in engaging in social action, they help members collectively advocate for changes in opportunities structures, allocation of resources, and greater participation in civic, economic, and political life. The initial targets of the worker’s efforts are community members the ultimate targets are those in posi- tions of power to make needed changes and concessions. Social planning requires social workers to engage in a process of fact-finding and research. Community members are the beneficiaries of these efforts but may or may not be involved in them. Targets in a social planning approach include the social problems that require attention and those who are in a posi- tion to address them. Developing programs to meet community needs reflects all three approaches and involves planning, funding, staffing, physical facilities, and support for needed new services. Community program development includes the active participation of constituency groups in identifying needs and planning and carrying out pro- grams. In developing programs to improve social conditions, local leadership and organizational structures must be established and residents’ participation and involvement sustained. Improving service coordination also is an important objective in community practice. Service coordination refers to collaborative plan- ning among agencies, joint fundraising, and other general social welfare activities. 5. Methods and Skills of Helping Communities Engage in Collective Action Engaging impoverished and vulnerable neighborhood or community members in a collective effort to empower themselves and to achieve their desire for social
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