154 Influencing Community and Neighborhood Life 2. Using one or more of the student examples from their field practicum, ask the class to consider: Sources of stress and of strength Neighborhood and community territorial boundaries (natural and artificial) Major institutions in the community (education, health, political, recre- ational, religious, and social services) Individuals who could or do serve as informal leaders Approaches to Community Practice 1. Begin with a lecture in which you review the various approaches to com- munity practice: locality development, social action, and social planning. Similar to the example provided in the chapter about the community prob- lem of rat infestation, solicit one or more examples from students’ field placement. In small groups or with the class as a whole, have students sum- marize interventions that reflect each of the three approaches. Then have students identify which one (or which combination) they would start with and why. 2. Using one or more of the examples solicited in exercise 1, have the students further develop and elaborate upon the community practice approach they have identified. In small groups or with the class as a whole, have students consider the following: Specific targets: The areas that students will direct their intervention efforts toward who will be responsible for bringing about the proposed change. Students should evaluate who holds power, and who/what are sources of power that can propel change. Beneficiaries: Who will benefit from the intervention? Students should identify both positive and desired outcomes, as well as unexpected and negative ones. Community Practice Methods and Skills 1. Using a lecture format, discuss with students the various approaches to com- munity practice, beginning with collaborative methods and moving into those that are more conflict-oriented. 2. As we discuss in the chapter, community practice often involves the use of the group work skills of internal mediation and advocacy. Use the example from the chapter of Mr. Steadman, who took on the role of monopolizer in a parent group formed to bring a drug treatment program for adolescents to their neighborhood, to reinforce the need to attend to group dynamics.
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